What information do I need to provide when ordering bolts or requesting a quotation to ensure that I receive the correct product?
Have you ever gone to order bolts and haven’t known what information you needed to provide to ensure you receive the correct fasteners? Relax, because you’re not alone. If you don’t deal with fasteners daily, you may not understand all of the necessary information you need to provide to ensure that you receive the correct bolts. The good news is that HAIYAN Bolt’s experienced sales staff is trained to ask all of the questions necessary to ensure you receive the correct materials.
Below is a list of information to provide and an explanation of how each factor affects the price and lead time.
For custom manufactured items, the size of a run has a significant impact on the price of each part. There are fixed costs associated with the production of any fastener and can include equipment set up costs and testing charges. These costs are the same regardless of the size of the production run and when broken down into a per-part cost are reduced as the quantity increases. Minimum costs for galvanizing and heat treating can also come into play when a small number of bolts are ordered. Quantity may also affect the lead time required to produce a run of product. Extremely large runs may require more machine hours and therefore may take extra time to manufacture.
The diameter and length of a fastener have a dramatic effect on the price of a bolt. Since the steel used to manufacture bolts is bought and sold on a per-pound basis, the heavier the bolt, the more expensive it will be.
Construction fasteners can be produced and supplied with a corrosion-resistant coating or in bare metal (referred to as plain finish or black). The most common corrosion resistant coating is hot-dip galvanizing, however, zinc plated and other options are available as well. The different coatings will not only add to the price of a plain finish fastener, but it will also lengthen the lead time.
The grade of a bolt, whether DIN, BS,ASTM, SAE, or AASHTO, has an impact on the price. Since various grades of bolts use different types of raw material, costs vary depending on the chemical composition of the steel round bar used. Additionally, some specifications require heat-treating or special testing, both of which add to the cost and lead time to produce the fastener.
The type of a bolt (e.g., headed bolt, bent bolt, or straight rod) will affect the cost and lead time. Certain fastener types require more or fewer manufacturing operations than others. The time to process each operation will affect the price. Since different pieces of equipment and machinery are used depending on the configuration, lead times will vary according to the type of fastener required.
- Thread Length
Contrary to popular belief, there is no such thing as a “standard thread length” for the vast majority of construction fasteners. ASME outlines some standards for headed bolts, but often more thread is required. It is important to communicate desired thread lengths on headed bolts in addition to bent bolts and threaded rods.
- Nuts, Washers, and Accessories
If nuts, washers, anchor sleeves, anchor plates, and other accessories are required with your bolts, it will affect the price of each unit. Special nuts, washers, and accessories might also take longer to produce than the bolt itself.
HAIYAN Bolt salespeople are trained to provide the least expensive compatible nut and washer for the grade of bolt being provided. If a different grade of nut or washer is required it is important to communicate that information.
- 8. Delivery Requirements
HAIYAN Bolt’s lead times are based on our customers’ requirements. However, we have standard lead times which we work to when customers are not pressed for delivery. Should materials be needed quicker than our standard lead times we can expedite the manufacturing process, however additional costs to cover overtime labor may be incurred. Therefore, lead times could affect the price.
- Response Time
The speed with which you require your quotation back does not affect the price or delivery of your order. However, by letting us know how quickly you need your quote, not only will we be able to accommodate your needs, but it will also allow us to prioritize the rest of our workload accordingly.
With regard to quotes, let us know if you would like your bolt prices to include the cost of shipping the product. We can either quote your list of product delivered to its destination or we can exclude the freight costs from our estimate. On orders, we can ship with freight prepaid, third-party, or collect on a carrier of your choice.
12. Certification and Special Testing
Unless otherwise specified, HAIYAN Bolt will provide chemical and physical mill test reports for all high strength, and custom-manufactured bolts and accessories. Testing of fasteners, many of which are performed within our in-house testing laboratory, will be in accordance with the ASTM, AASHTO, or SAE specification to which the bolts have been ordered. Any additional testing or special certification will be provided upon request.
The short answer is that in most cases, welding high strength bolts is not allowed. In the fastener industry, the term “high strength” typically refers to any medium carbon or alloy steel which undergoes a heat-treating process to develop the strength properties necessary to meet the requirements of a given specification. These ASTM specifications include A449, A325, A193 Grade B7, F1554 Grade 105, A354 Grades BC and BD, and A490 among others. When heat is reapplied to a bolt that has been heat-treated, it is likely that the physical properties (strength) of the bolt may be altered. When heat is applied in an uncontrolled environment, it is impossible to determine what effect this application of heat has had on the fastener. Therefore, welding to high strength bolts is not recommended.
Three references occur to back up this statement.
Section 4.5.1 of the AISC Design Guide 21 addresses most ASTM anchor rod specifications individually and prohibits the welding of all quenched and tempered grades.
On page 2-25 of the Fourteenth Edition of the AISC Manual (American Institute of Steel Construction), the following statement occurs:
“As a heat-treated material, Grade 105 rods cannot be welded.”
The final reference prohibiting the heating of high strength bolts (which would occur during welding) can be found in the ASTM F1554 specification. Section 6.5.3 of the ASTM F1554 specification states:
“The maximum hot bending temperature for heat treated anchor bolts shall be less than…..1000F for grade 105.”
Although this statement refers to hot bending, it implies that any process (including welding) that applies heat approaching or exceeding the tempering temperature to a high strength bolt may potentially alter the mechanical properties of the fastener and should, therefore, be avoided.
The issue of altering the high strength bolt’s mechanical properties when welding can potentially be avoided by performing the welding operation prior to the fastener undergoing the heat-treating process. In other words, a plate, a nut, or another component could potentially be welded to a bolt prior to the fastener being heat treated. The problem is, the base medium carbon or alloy steel used to make high strength bolts is technically not weldable due to high levels of carbon and manganese. This could perhaps be overcome with special welding procedures, but the bottom line is that it would be best to avoid welding high strength bolts altogether.
For anchor bolt applications, instead of welding a nut and/or plate to the bottom of a high-strength anchor rod, consider using an anchor bolt with a forged hex head, peening the thread to prevent the nut from backing off, jamming two nuts together to lock them in place, or sandwiching a square plate between two nuts on the embedded end of the anchor rod.
If welding to material grades mentioned in this FAQ is specified on your project, consult with the Engineer of Record for special welding procedures or guidelines.
Some high strength bolts can be galvanized while others cannot. In the construction fastener industry, typically the phrase “high strength” refers to bolts that have been quenched and tempered (heat treated) to develop the proper strength requirements of a given specification. In many cases, low alloy steels like ASTM A572g50 or F1554g55 are called “high strength”. There are no issues galvanizing those low alloy grades. However, for the purposes of this FAQ, we are only discussing quench and tempered fasteners. Two separate issues are involved in determining whether or not a high strength bolt can be galvanized.
Hydrogen Embrittlement Concerns
The first issue involves a phenomenon called hydrogen embrittlement which may occur when atomic hydrogen is absorbed by the steel during the acid pickling process that takes place prior to galvanizing. This embrittlement can potentially lead to the loss or partial loss of ductility in the steel and consequently result in the premature failure of the fastener in the field.
According to specification ASTM A143 – Safeguarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-Dip Galvanized Structural Steel Products and Procedure for Detecting Embrittlement:
“In practice hydrogen embrittlement of galvanized steel is usually of concern only if the steel exceeds approximately 150 ksi (1100 MPa) in ultimate tensile strength.”
Additionally, section 7.2.2 of specification ASTM F2329 – Zinc Coating, Hot-Dip, Requirements for Application to Carbon and Alloy Steel Bolts, Screws, Washers, Nuts, and Special Threaded Fasteners reads as follows:
“For high strength fasteners (having a specified minimum product hardness of 33 HRC), there is a risk of internal hydrogen embrittlement.”
By reviewing Table 1 below, it is clear that specifications ASTM A490, ASTM A354 grade BD, and SAE J429 grade 8 are all potentially susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement and should therefore not be hot-dip galvanized. This is further reinforced by specific references found in both the ASTM F3125/A490 specification and the ASTM A354 specification.
According to F3125 Annex A1 and Table A1.1 – Permitted Coatings, for grade A490 bolts both mechanical galvanizing per B695 and hot dip galvanizing per F2329 are “Not Qualified” meaning that those two coatings are currently prohibited on A490 grade fasteners.
Additionally, A354 in Section 4.3.5, Note 4 references ISO TR 20491, “Fundamentals of Hydrogen Embrittlement in Steel Fasteners”. Although this is well short of a specific prohibition, it is clear that the authors of A354 want to make sure that the user fully understands the potential pitfalls of hot dip galvanizing bolts of this grade.
This information taken directly from the ASTM specifications supports our belief that hot-dip galvanizing of ASTM A490, ASTM A354 grade BD, and SAE J429 grade 8 should be avoided due to the risk of hydrogen embrittlement.
Anchor bolts which are embedded in concrete and used for structural anchorage purposes can assume several forms. Common forms of anchor bolts include right angle bend anchor bolts, swedged rods, and threaded rods (typically with a nut and/or square plate attached to the bottom of the rod). Another common configuration for an anchor bolt is a hex head bolt, where the head is inserted into the concrete slab as it is being poured, with the threads projecting from the concrete. The forged head prevents the hex bolt from pulling out of the foundation.
Almost all imported A307 grade A fasteners will not meet the F1554 grade 36 specification, although they are very similar. Many imported A307 grade A fasteners have no traceability and are only available with a certificate of conformance that contains no chemistry or mechanical property information. When mill test reports are present for imported A307 grade A hex bolts, they are often lacking data that will allow these bolts to be cross-certified to the F1554 grade 36 specification. The F1554 grade 36 specification requires that the bolts meet specific mechanical requirements including both tensile and yield strength. Since the A307 grade A specification does not possess a yield strength requirement, this value is rarely reported on the mill test reports. In order to cross-certify imported A307 grade A hex bolts to F1554 grade 36, yield strength testing must have been performed, the results must be included on the test reports, and the value must fall within the parameters of the F1554 grade 36 specification. Mild steel hex bolts are rarely, if ever, accompanied by test reports that verify all of the mechanical properties of the F1554 grade 36 specification will be met. Unless hex bolts are specifically manufactured and tested to the requirements of F1554 grade 36, they will undoubtedly not be accompanied by the correct certification documents with the additional requirements stated in the chart below.
|Grade||Tensile, ksi||Yield, ksi minimum|
|A307 Grade A||60 minimum||No requirement|
|F1554 Grade 36||58-80||36|
So what should you do if a fastener supplier tells you that they have hex bolts in stock that conform to the requirements of F1554 grade 36?
The first thing to do is question this claim. Although these specifications are similar, they are by no means the same. This is a vital issue since installing imported A307 grade A hex bolts instead of F1554 grade 36 hex bolt can present significant liability issues. By this same standard, we would caution you against allowing a fastener company to substitute a threaded rod with a nut for a true headed bolt. For more information on exposing your company to liability issues by installing the wrong product, read this FAQ.
Although these specifications are similar, they are by no means the same.
It is commonplace in our industry for a bolt supplier to substitute A307 grade A hex bolts when F1554 grade 36 hex bolts are required. Why is this done? There are many reasons ranging from a salesperson’s desire to close a sale and collect their commission with a similar product in stock, to simply not understanding the technical differences between the two specifications. Our suggestion would be to have a copy of the mill test reports sent to you prior to ordering the bolts. If your supplier indeed stocks F1554 grade 36 hex bolts, they will be able to supply you with documentation specifying the chemical and physical properties of the bolts you will be buying. Simply take the test reports and find the yield strength value. If it is missing, and this will likely be the case, the bolts will not meet the requirements of F1554 grade 36. Because the substitution of A307 grade A hex bolts for F1554 grade 36 hex bolts is so commonplace, it is up to you to protect your company from a potential law suit and verify for yourself that the “F1554 grade 36” hex bolts you are buying meet the requirements of the specification.
What causes these issues associated with Reduction of Area? If you receive certification for commercially available all thread rod, typically it is for the A36 raw material (or other mild steel) used to manufacture the finished product. This is often why there is no Reduction of Area value provided since A36 raw material has no Reduction of Area requirement. A36 raw material, if tested, will typically meet the Reduction of Area and all other requirements of the F1554 grade 36 specification. When the all thread rod in its finished form is tested, it rarely will meet the Reduction of Area requirement. Why is this? Typically the A36 raw material is roll threaded and often cold drawn from a larger diameter prior to threading. These processes result in a work hardening of the steel and create a finished product that is higher in strength and is less ductile than the raw material. Consequently, when the fully threaded rod is tested in its finished condition, the Reduction of Area value does not fall within the guidelines of F1554 grade 36. Additionally, the Elongation and Tensile Strength requirements may not be met.
We would suggest that these issues be raised with any supplier claiming to provide stock all thread rod which is certifiable to ASTM F1554 grade 36.
The head of an economy bolt also has two nubs or fins on the underside which prevents the bolt from turning in the timber when the nut is assembled. Economy bolts are typically exposed to the elements, which may be corrosive, especially in marine applications. For this reason, economy bolts are commonly manufactured in a hot-dip galvanized finish or made from type 304 or 316 stainless steel.
The differences between the two standards are primarily mechanical, dimensional, and application-based.
A194 nuts are intended for high-temperature applications, although they are certainly used in many, non-high-temperature applications as well.
F594 nuts are intended for general purpose applications.
We can compare the nuts using three metrics; chemistry, mechanical properties, and dimensions.
Chemically, the nuts are identical. F594 group 1 nuts are made from 304 stainless, as are A194 gr.8 nuts.
F594 group 2 nuts are made from 316 stainless, as are A194 gr.8M nuts.
Also Dimensional, the two nuts are different.
A194 nuts are made to heavy hex dimensions, whereas F594 nuts are made with standard hex dimensions. Heavy hex nuts are 1/8” thicker across the flats regardless of diameter, and are also slightly taller, although that dimension varies by diameter. You can see the size comparisons here:
Standard Hex Nuts
Heavy Hex Nuts
Specials can, of course, be made to alternate dimensions, but the default, off the shelf dimensions, are as above.
The fasteners under the ASTM A193 specification are designed to be used in high temperature or high pressure service, often in flanges and piping systems. Headed fasteners in this specification require a heavy hex pattern head unless otherwise specified. Also, threads above 1” in diameter are specified as 8 threads per inch (8UN).
Hot-forged headed stainless steel bolts under the A193 specification require solution annealing after forging to restore full corrosion-resistant properties. If a scale-free bright finish is required, this must be specified in the purchase order. A193 bolts require ASTM A194 heavy hex nuts in the matching stainless steel type.
A193 Marking Requirements include grade symbol and manufacturer’s identifier.
The F593 specification is more of a general purpose stainless steel specification used in all different applications. The headed bolts in the F593 specification require a standard hex head pattern (as opposed to heavy hex) unless otherwise specified. Diameters above 1” require Unified National Coarse (UNC) threads unless otherwise specified.
Hot-forged headed stainless steel bolts under the F593 specification are manufactured to either Condition A or Condition CW which both require solution annealing after forging to restore full corrosion-resistant properties. F593 bolts require ASTM F594 hex nuts in the matching stainless steel type.
One primary difference between A193 and F593 hot-forged bolts is that F593 requires an additional test for susceptibility to inter-granular corrosion, which the A193 specification does not. This test adds to both the cost and lead time to produce this grade of stainless headed bolt.
There are multiple differences between these two specifications. The A193 specification is designed for use in high-temperature, high-pressure applications whereas F593 is used as more of a generic, all-purpose use fastener. There are varying mechanical properties between the two specifications along with configuration differences for headed bolts and varying thread pitch requirements. There are also additional testing requirements for F593 which are not required under the A193 specification.
ASME B18.31.5 is, “The standard that establishes general requirements for parts classified as bent bolts.“ According to this specification, “The inside diameters or bend radii shall be as agreed between the buyer and manufacturer, as each dimension depends on material characteristics.” In essence, there is no standard guideline for the radius of the bend in a right angle anchor bolt. The type of bending equipment used to manufacture these bolts is also a determining factor in the bend radius used.
“The outside of the bent portion shall have no cracks” according to ASME B18.31.5, and according to ASTM F1554, “The bend section of bent anchor bolts shall have a cross-sectional area not less than 90 % of the area of straight portions.”
HAIYAN Bolt typically uses a standard bend radius that is twice the diameter of the bolt for right angle anchor bolts.
HAIYAN Bolt will manufacture these anchor bolts with a specific bend radius when this is shown on the plans or requested by the customer.
Below are the freight options for HAIYAN Bolt orders.
This is by far the most common way HAIYAN Bolt ships orders. When we provide a quote, we will typically include the freight cost to the zip code that the order is to be shipped to. The quote will clearly state “FOB (destination)”. We will invoice the customer for the freight cost that was quoted, and the freight carrier will bill HAIYAN Bolt directly. When freight is shipped prepaid, the shipper is responsible for the shipment until it arrives at its destination.
Prepay & Add freight
There are some cases where the freight cost is not included in the original quote. In these scenarios, the quote will clearly state “FOB SHANGHAI CHINA”. Everything is the same as freight prepaid, except that the freight cost will be added to the invoice after the order ships, as opposed to being an already agreed upon freight cost.
Collect freight is when the customer selects the carrier, and the freight carrier bills the customer directly. For some freight carriers, this will require the customer providing their account number for the carrier they are selecting. When the order is ready to be shipped,HAIYAN Bolt will contact the carrier that the customer has chosen. When freight is shipped collect, the consignee is responsible for the shipment as soon as it leaves our facility.
Third Party Freight
Third party freight is very similar to freight collect. The only difference is Company X is purchasing the product, designating the shipping company and having it shipped to Company Y. Company X is billed by the carrier for the cost of the freight. When freight is shipped third party, the purchasing company is responsible for the shipment as soon as it leaves our facility.
Will Call by Customer’s Carrier
This is when a customer is sending in their own carrier to pick up an order. To avoid any confusion, either the customer or the freight carrier will need to send us a bill of lading before they arrive, as carriers sometimes show up to pick up a shipment but have no further details. It will also need to be clearly communicated by both HAIYAN Bolt and the customer exactly when the order can be picked up. Similar to freight collect, the purchasing company is responsible for the shipment as soon as it leaves our facility.